Clear Brine Fluids – Halide
Calcium fluids minimize formation damage caused by solid invasion, and shale dispersion.
TETRA calcium halide brines are used as completion and packer fluids and in the formulation of our PayZone® fluids.
Single Salt Blends
Single salt fluid blends are brines composed of only one salt. They can range in density from slightly above the density of water such as with three percent potassium chloride to an 11.6 lb/gal calcium chloride or a 15.1 lb/gal calcium bromide solution.
Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) Solution
Used as a completion, workover, and gravel pack fluid when the ammonium ion is preferred. Ammonium chloride is an inherently acidic brine that can minimize or prevent formation damage. Ammonium chloride brines are shale inhibitive and compatible with most formation water.
Calcium Bromide (CaBr2) Solution
Used as a completion, workover, gravel pack, and packer fluid. It can also be used as a spike fluid to increase density. Calcium bromide is often used when the chloride ion is not desirable. Due to its inhibitive properties, calcium bromide can reduce formation damage caused by clay swelling and dispersion.
Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) Solution
Calcium chloride, one of the most economical brines used in oilfield completion and workover operations, is used as a single-salt brine to inhibit clay swelling, dispersion, and migration.
Potassium Chloride (KCl) Solution
Used when the potassium ion is preferred. It is also an effective clay/shale stabilizer in water-sensitive formations.
Sodium Bromide (NaBr) Solution
Pure sodium bromide brine is used when the chloride ion is not desirable and when sodium is preferred over calcium. Often used in situations where formation waters contain high levels of sulfate or carbonate that the calcium ion could cause to precipitate.
Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Solution
Often chosen due to its wide availability and low cost.
Multi-salt fluid blends are used to achieve greater fluid densities at a lower cost. The most commonly requested two salt blends are calcium chloride/calcium bromide and sodium chloride/sodium bromide, and the most commonly used three salt blend is zinc bromide/calcium bromide/calcium chloride. These standard multi-salt blends are commonly available for both 30ºF and 60ºF applications. TETRA can also blend custom specialty fluids to meet specific true crystallization temperature (TCT), pressurized crystallization temperature (PCT), or concentration requirements.
Calcium Chloride/Calcium Bromide (CaCl2/CaBr2) Blend
A clear brine fluid, calcium chloride/calcium bromide blend (CaCl2/CaBr2) can be formulated to meet individual density and crystallization temperature requirements in the density range from 11.6 lb/gal to 15.1 lb/gal. Calcium chloride/calcium bromide blends are the most economical clear brine fluids at their available density range.
Sodium Chloride/Sodium Bromide (NaCl/NaBr) Blend
A clear brine fluid, sodium chloride/sodium bromide (NaCl/NaBr) blend can be formulated to meet individual density and crystallization temperature requirements, covering the density range from 8.4 lb/gal to 12.7 lb/gal. A sodium chloride/sodium bromide blend is often used when the calcium ion is not desirable and costs are a concern, as it is less expensive than pure sodium bromide brines.
Zinc Bromide/Calcium Bromide/Calcium Chloride (ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2) Blend
A clear brine fluid, zinc bromide/calcium bromide/calcium chloride (ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2) blend can be formulated to meet individual density and crystallization temperature requirements above the density range from 15.0 lb/gal to 19.2 lb/gal. This blend is used primarily when higher densities are required.